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Contents

Figure 0 Introduction
Figure 0, Footnote 1 Comment on the up-side
Figure 0, Footnote 2 Diversion- Copying a whole Web page
Figure 1 "The brain is not a horseradish."
Figure 2 Dosing too soon after the last dose
Figure 3 Overlapping curves show apparent loss of effect
Figure 4 Up, up, and away from the comfort zone
Figure 5 Compensating for accumulating rebound only makes matters worse
Figure 6 The magic mirror: Does upper-down act like downer-up?
Figure 7 Down with uppers
Figure 8 Compensating again-- When will they ever learn?
Figure 9 Imaginative uses of uppers and downers
Figure 10 Attention/time-tag in rebound: Uppers & downers
Figure 11 Attention/time-tag in rebound: Siders
See Charles Tart, On Being Stoned, Chapter 9
Main page-- Psychoactive Management

Email me (Bill) at bill34543@erols.com

Figure 0 (Zero)-- Introduction

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Figure 0, Note 1-- Comment on the up-side

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Figure 0, Note 2-- Diversion-- Copying a whole Web page

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Figure 1-- "The brain is not a horseradish."

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Figure 2-- Dosing too soon after the last dose

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Figure 3-- Overlapping curves show apparent loss of effect

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Figure 4-- Up, up, and away from the comfort zone

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Figure 5-- Compensating for accumulating rebound only makes matters worse

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Figure 6-- The magic mirror: Does upper/down act like downer/up?

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Figure 7-- Down with uppers

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Figure 8-- Compensating again

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Figure 9-- Imaginative uses of uppers and downers

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Figure 10-- Attention/time-tag in rebound: Uppers & downers

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Figure 11-- Attention/time-tag in rebound: Siders


(Note: This aspect of "sider" experiences is not intended to define the entire experience. See Charles Tart's book, On Being Stoned. Click for Chapter 9 which discusses changes in perception of space and time.)
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Feel welcome at the Psychoactive Management page and "http://groups.yahoo.com/group/the5rules">The5rules, my mail list.

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Figure 0Text from "Introduction"
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Yes, that's "Figure Zero" -- Some preliminary remarks. :-) __PSYCHOACTIVE REBOUND__ These curves and graphs are not the result of empirical measurement. (Fn.: Although the specific curves in this set of 0-11 are not the result of experiments, yet they do represent real events of psychoactive tolerance, rebound, and so on.) They describe an aspect of psychoactive chemical consumption that causes frustration to some consumers -- using the chemical causes specific changes in the person which makes it harder to use that chemical, and the more one tries to get a grip on the problem, the more elusive the solution becomes. Some of us who drink, put it this way: "Alcohol showed me how to fly, then it took away the sky." That would be an extreme (from which millions are recovering), but there are lesser degrees.

 [Image: Small down/up curve]

Here's how we start. Imagine someone taking a psychoactive chemical, let's say a "downer" (alcohol, pills) at 10:00, and that the down-effect lasts 2-1/2 hours, shown here as a curve dropping to line minus-D, and rising again to the green "normal" line at 12:30. Or the curve could represent a drinking binge lasting from the start of June 10 and lasting to the middle of June 12. This curve does _not_ represent the presence of alcohol in one's bloodstream. It represents the _psychoactive effect_ of the alcohol-- Sedation, depression, something in the direction of sleep, in other words. In the following series of graphs, something that can happen as a result of this psychoactive consumption is illustrated. Bear in mind that results are not the same for everyone, and depend on one's experience, body chemistry, social setting, and so on. YMMV (your mileage may vary). But rebounds do happen with uppers, downers, and siders. ------------------------------------------------- Figure 0, Footnote 1-- Text from "Comment on the up-side"
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 [Image: Detail of down-up curve with right side circled]

Footnote-- Please excuse the interruption... This part of the curve is _not_ the "psychoactive rebound". This is just the person's experience _returning to normal_. Just to be perfectly clear. OK, go on. Wait-- Another footnote. You can't use "copy/paste" with these graphs, but (1) the text is reproduced as a normal text file, at the end, and (2) you can save the images by _right_-clicking on them and selecting "save image" in the little menu. OK, go on.
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Figure 0 Footnote 2-- Text from "Diversion- Copying a whole Web page, plus some additional text"
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a name="copypage">Here's how I copy an entire web page, including pictures:
1) In the upper left corner of the browser, click on File.
2) When you're presented with the default name of the HTML page, change the name if you want, but save the ".HTM" ending.
3) Prepare a new folder for the page-- One folder just for this page. Make the name similar, like if the page is "ThisPage.htm" make the folder "ThisPageHTM".
4) Move into that folder, and save the page there.
5) Right-click on the images one by one. That's using the right mouse button.
6) When a menu appears, select the "save image" option. Accept the name presented; do NOT change that name, and save the image into the folder.
7) Later, to reproduce the page with the images, simply type the pathname of the page into your browser's URL box. NOTE: The links shown on the page probably won't work, if they refer to a web site and you're not on line. But you can view the page and its images without being online, by typing the pathname into the URL slot. OK, go on (or, if you linked here, back out with your back arrow button).
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Figure 1-- Text from "The brain is not a horseradish."
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As Dr. Robert Pandina, my teacher at the Rutgers University Summer School of Alcohol Studies, liked to say, "The brain is not a horse radish," meaning the brain is not an inert object. Nowadays it is popular to compare the brain to a computer, with its neuronal networks (hardware), learned ways of dealing with data (software), and memory (memory). Psychoactive substances can cause changes in brain chemistry and even effect new neuronal connections (not to mention destruction of old ones). The whole point of consuming psychoactives is to affect the brain. But remember, it is not a passive thing. When you push on a horseradish, it rolls somewhere and stops. When you push on the brain (yech!) it rolls back. You numb it, and it excites itself.

_The main job of the brain:_ You don't have to be a brain surgeon to understand this: The main job of the brain is to be asleep and awake at the right times. (Image/Fn.) Intelligence is not required for this awake/asleep operation. But a complex balance of neuronal and chemical operations is. The brain has mechanisms in it like a thermostat. When your room gets cold, the thermostat turns on the furnace. If the brain "gets cold" from a sedative (alcohol, pills), the "wakastat" changes the balance of chemicals and neuronal operations, to awaken the brain. And, like the room's thermostat, the "wakastat" has a time lag in it. And (like a fancy room-thermostat) it _learns._ So, if you push down on your brain, it pushes back -- and _keeps pushing._

How long does this opposite-pushing last, beyond the disappearance of the psychoactive chemical? It may be a matter of hours, days, weeks.... Until the brain senses the stuff is gone. If consumption was regular, or lengthy, the brain may take a while to make up its mind (sorry) that the stuff is all gone.

 [Image: Small graph showing rebound for one incidence of sedation.]
Figure 2-- Text from "Dosing too soon after the last dose"
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Using these curves to illustrate rebound effects, "drug tolerance", and so on, does not necessarily mean that a person's individual experience with their psychoactive hobby will be neatly represented. The curves and graphs represent typical situations, and a particular up/down curve might stand for a person's experience with dozens of doses over days or months. I've drawn detailed graphs with clients, covering many years and hundreds of thousands of doses, and taken days to collect the data, which covered many pages, based on hundreds of questions. It's amazing what we can remember about the details of our psychoactive consumption, even when it seems to be done thoughtlessly, our of habit or a routine. I consumed about 265,000 tobacco joints and can remember many incidents of smoking them.

 [Second incidence of dosing, curve takes much longer to return to

The red line represents the return to normal, during the psychoactive rebound phase of the "downer". Compare this with the black line, above it, representing the longer time it takes to "come down" when one consumes another dose, before recovering from the rebound effects of the first dose.
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Figure 3-- Text from "Overlapping curves show apparent loss of effect"
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 [Image: Multiple dosings cause rise in tolerance.]

When a given dose of sedative is consumed before the agitation aftermath from the previous dose has subsided, the "down" effect is subtracted from the new "up" aftereffect, resulting in less of a "down" effect and the accumulation of "up" effects. Eventually the sedative doses are bringing the consumer down from agitation to normal, instead of from normal to drowsy. Orange line is desired effect of drowsiness; red line is "side effect".... Gradual increase in psychomotor agitation... Gradual decrease of relaxation, but the relaxing effect is still happening, although not as apparent.
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Figure 4-- Text from "Up, up, and away from the comfort zone"
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Escalation of tolerance: 2 concerns: (1) _Sought effect_ of relaxation diminishes to zero (where interval marker line 17 croses green "normal" line); after that, the only effect the sedative is having is to reduce psychomotor agitation (_caused by previous doses_). (2) _Side effect_ of psychomotor agitation is becoming unpleasant, yet attempting to quell it by additional doses only produces _more_ psychomotor agitation. During this phase, the "downer" chemical doesn't seem effective, but it is -- as a powerful "upper".

 [Image:           ]

At this time, the psychoactive consumer is unable to practice in this zone (relaxation). There's probably a sense of loss.
What will the typical psychoactive consumer do when this paradoxical development happens, the "downer" turning into an "upper"? That depends on their style of consumption. If they are consuming _out of habit_, they will be unaware of why they're unable to relax with a drink any more. But if when they drink they are _using_ the alcohol _deliberately_ as a sedative, they will probably escalate the dosage, to keep within the zone between the green and orange lines, and the result will be even more paradoxical and discouraging (see Figure 5).
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Figure 5-- Text from "Compensating for accumulating rebound only makes matters worse"
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 [Image: Non-linear increase in dosing during attempt to control the agitation 
from increased tolerance.]

Attempts to control the "side effects" just make matters worse. At about T=12, our consumer decides to increase the dose, to compensate for the increase in psychomotor agitation caused by previous doses. But this is thwarted by a still greater increase in psychomotor agitation. If the levels at the left ("wide awake... tense... frenzied") actually applied, this graph would stop somewhere around time=30, owing to consumer entering a zone of shakes, convulsions, and/or death. What the consumer would probably be doing, however, would be not only taking larger doses, but would be taking doses more frequently, to avoid the extreme agitation. But that would amount to "larger doses" and be similarly self-defeating.
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Figure 6-- Text from "The magic mirror: Does upper-down resemble downer-up?"
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 [Image: Mirror images of the two rebound curves, without the complication of tolerance.]

Mirror reflection: Do the tolerance curves for "uppers" work the same as for "downers"? Yes and no. Yes: Rebounds occur. No: Rebound buildup is limited by person being asleep a lot, instead of awake a lot. See Figure 7 for elaboration.
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Figure 7-- Text from "Down with uppers"
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 [Image:

Mirror reflection: Notice the similarity with Figure 3. This time, the orange line is in the area above "normal" and we're assuming our consumer wants to be in the orange-green range (although not necessarily "tense", but let's use that as the desired level, just for illustration. Again, someone using an "upper" out of habit, will experience a loss of ability to function in the orange-green zone of greater-than-normal-wakefulness, and will be getting increasingly drowsy and falling asleep more than usual. But, realistically, the graph won't get this far down, simply because the person will be sleeping too much to manage their psychoactive in the same way they might if they were awake. Bear this in mind when examining Figure 8, which is constructed to resemble Figure 4 (compensating for the psychoactive rebound). Notice that at T=17, the person's usual dose of coffee, for example, is no longer making them wide awake, but just making them feel normal.
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Figure 8-- Text from "Compensating again"
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 [Image: Curve showing how trying to compensate for effects of upper-rebound 
(downer effect) makes things worse]

At about T=12, our consumer decides to increase the dose of the "upper" to compensate for the rebound effect of lethargy. But the greater the dose, the greater the rebound effect, and the rebound effects accumulate, just as they did in the example (Figure 5) with consuming an "upper," whose rebound is in a "down" direction. If the levels at the left ("relaxed... asleep... coma") actually applied, this graph would not go completely off the page, as shown here. For one thing, it would be difficult to keep consuming, at least on a regular basis, because of all the sleeping, or "crashing". Some coffee consumers crash on the highway, during the rebound phase from a big dose. Another note about these curves: The width of a peak (or valley) should be wider, for a larger dose because with more of the chemical in one's body, the longer it's going to take to be used up. I have left the curves the same width in the interest of simplicity. The main idea here is that the psychoactive rebound effects are likely to increase unless the consumer waites to take another dose, while the effects of the previous one wear off. Also, the more one tries deliberately to compensate for the "side effects" the harder they will become to manage, partly because of the changing dynamics and partly because consuming mind-altering substances affects the mind (duh).
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Figure 9-- Text from "Imaginative uses of uppers and downers"
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 [Image: A novel use of 'side effects' -- rebounds from an upper and a downer are the sought effects instead of side effects.]

Some imaginative uses of uppers and downers: Two of my friends have found a way to use coffee and Valium in a way other than intended by the manufacturer. One friend drinks coffee in the afternoon and evening, in order that the rebound from the stimulant effect will occur during the night, so he will sleep more deeply. The other took Valium at night, so that on awakening he would have the rebound of greater wakefulness. In the latter case, the accumulated rebound effects finally overwhelmed his ability to manage this style of consumption. This illustrates how "sought effect" and "side effect" depend on the intentions and expectations of the consumer. In both cases, most people would consider the rebound, after-effects to be "side effects". In these two cases, they were "sought effects".
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Figure 10-- Text from "Attention/time-tag in rebound: Uppers & downers"
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 [Image: Three curves illustrating rebound with uppers and downers, as 
percentage of time-tagged memory content.]

This Graph Illustrates Percentage of Time-Tagged Memory Content. Red may be interpreted as "upper" or "downer-rebound". Blue may be interpreted as "downer" or "upper-rebound". These curves are not empirical, or the result of measurement. They are intentionally simplistic and meant only to be descriptive. I drew them with the data points adding to 100 percentage points, under the green, normal curve. Think of the area under the curve representing one's total attention at a given moment being allocated in various degrees to events happening at different times in one's personal past. "Uppers" have an effect of allowing one more attention at a given moment, and "downers" less attention. Although in individual cases the peaks may not be all on the same vertical line, I've drawn them this way for the purpose of illustrating the concepts.
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Figure 11-- Text from "Attention/time-tag in rebound: Siders"
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 [Image: Three curves illustrating rebound with siders, as percentage of time-tagged memory content.]

This Graph Illustrates Percentage of Time-Tagged Memory Content. The violet line represents the experience of someone under the influence of a "sider" -- a hallucinogen such as LSD or marijuana, although the hallucinogenic aspect is not at issue here. The gold line represents the corresponding rebound. These curves are not empirical, or the result of measurement. They are intentionally simplistic and meant only to be descriptive. I drew them with the data points adding to 100 percentage points. The idea is that one's attention is allocated differently under the influence of "siders", and the rebound is a reflection, so to speak, of that allocation, with the two curves skewed on opposite sides of the green curve. Consumers of "siders" report, for example, a heightened awareness to short intervals between musical notes, and difficulty remembering events happening a few moments ago. Rebounds from heavy consumption may also include depression and/or agitation.